Protestant theologian Horace Bushnell in Christian Nurture emphasized the necessity of figuring out and supporting the religiosity of children and younger adults. Beginning in the 1790s the Protestant denominations arrange Sunday school packages. Urban Protestant churchmen set up the interdenominational YMCA (and later the YWCA) applications in cities from the 1850s.
George A. Bournoutian, A Concise History of the Armenian People (Mazda, 2003, 2004). I. M. Diakonoff, The Pre-History of the Armenian People (revised, trans. Lori Jennings), Caravan Books, New York , ISBN .
The Constitution as amended in 2005 supplies for freedom of religion and the best to follow, choose, or change non secular belief. The Law on Freedom of Conscience establishes the separation of church and state however it grants the Armenian Church official status as the national church. Most Jews, Mormons, Baha’is, Eastern Orthodox Christians, and Western Catholic (Latin Rite) Christians reside within the capital Yerevan, which has attracted a higher variety of peoples.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and different worldwide monetary establishments (IFIs) and overseas international locations are extending appreciable grants and loans. These loans are focused at reducing the budget deficit and stabilising the forex; creating non-public companies; vitality; agriculture; meals processing; transportation; the well being and education sectors; and ongoing rehabilitation within the earthquake zone. The authorities joined the World Trade Organization on 5 February 2003.
Some have linked the name Armenia with the Early Bronze Age state of Armani (Armanum, Armi) or the Late Bronze Age state of Arme (Shupria). Some trendy researchers have positioned it in the identical basic space as Arme, near fashionable Samsat, and have advised it was populated, no less than partially, by an early Indo-European-speaking individuals.
During this sequence, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include “these areas of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India.” After the collection ended in 1903, The Times eliminated quotation marks from subsequent makes use of of the time period. The time period “Middle East” may have originated within the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it grew to become more broadly recognized when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the time period in 1902 to “designate the realm between Arabia and India”.
Küçüokay Armenia Krallığı’nın Kuzeybatısı: Antiochia ad Taurum
Most of them adopted the newly created Eastern or Western variants of the Armenian language depending on the targeted viewers, and preferred them over classical Armenian (grabar). This interval ended after the Hamidian massacres, when Armenians experienced turbulent instances. As Armenian history of the Nineteen Twenties and of the Genocide got here to be extra overtly mentioned, writers like Paruyr Sevak, Gevork Emin, Silva Kaputikyan and Hovhannes Shiraz started a new period of literature. Several groups of Christian immigrants, primarily from the Middle East, Caucasus, Africa and India, introduced Oriental Orthodoxy to the United States.
In the next few centuries, Djenghis Khan, Timurids, and the tribal Turkic federations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu dominated over the Armenians. Luwianologist John D. Hawkins proposed that “Hai” folks have been possibly talked about within the tenth century BCE Heiroglyphic Luwian inscriptions from Charchemish. A.E. Redgate later clarified that these “Hai” folks could have been Armenians. Maunsell’s map, a Pre-World War I British Ethnographical Map of the Middle East, exhibiting the historic Armenian areas in darkish inexperienced.
The kingdom rose to energy within the mid-9th century BC, but went into gradual decline and was ultimately conquered by the Iranian Medes in the early 6th century BC. This intermixing would finally pretty armenian girls culminate within the emergence of the Armenians because the dominant polity and culture of the Armenian Highlands, and because the direct successors and inheritors of the Urartian area.
Mahan first used the term in his article “The Persian Gulf and International Relations”, printed in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The most populous countries in the area are Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, whereas Saudi Arabia is the most important Middle Eastern nation by area. Most of the international locations that border the Persian Gulf have huge reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports.
In 1080, they based an impartial Armenian Principality then Kingdom of Cilicia, which turned the main target of Armenian nationalism. The Armenians developed close social, cultural, navy, and non secular ties with nearby Crusader States, but finally succumbed to Mamluk invasions.
When they began pushing for extra rights within the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, in response, organised state-sponsored massacres in opposition to the Armenians between 1894 and 1896, resulting in an estimated death toll of eighty,000 to 300,000 folks. The Hamidian massacres, as they came to be known, gave Hamid worldwide infamy because the “Red Sultan” or “Bloody Sultan”. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty of Iran divided Armenia.